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The repair of an injured tissue is a complex biological process involving the coordinated activities of tissue-resident and infiltrating cells in response to local and systemic signals. Following acute tissue injury, inflammatory cell infiltration and activation/proliferation of resident stem cells is the first line of defense to restore tissue homeostasis. However, in the setting of chronic tissue damage, such as in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, inflammatory infiltrates persist, the ability of stem cells (satellite cells) is blocked and fibrogenic cells are continuously activated, eventually leading to the conversion of muscle into nonfunctional fibrotic tissue. This review explores our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying efficient muscle repair that are dysregulated in muscular dystrophy-associated fibrosis and in aging-related muscle dysfunction.